Polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverages and metabolic status in adults living in sicily, Southern Italy
Polyphenol-rich beverage consumption is not univocally accepted as a risk modulator for cardio-metabolic risk factors, despite mechanistic and epidemiological evidence suggesting otherwise. The aim of this study was to assess whether an association between polyphenol-rich beverage consumption and metabolic status could be observed in a Mediterranean cohort with relatively low intake of tea, coffee, red and white wine, beer, and fresh citrus juice. Demographic and dietary characteristics of 2044 adults living in southern Italy were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverage consumption and metabolic status adjusted for potential confounding factors. Specific polyphenol-rich beverages were associated, to a various extent, with metabolic outcomes. Individuals with a higher total polyphenol-rich beverages had higher polyphenols intake and were less likely to have hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44–0.73; OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26–0.66; and OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57, respectively). However, when adjusted for potential confounding factors, only the association with hypertension remained significant (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.94). Current scientific evidence suggests that such beverages may play a role on cardio-metabolic risk factors, especially when consumed within the context of a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of a plurality of them. However, these associations might be mediated by an overall healthier lifestyle.