Moderate Beer Intake Downregulates Inflammasome Pathway Gene Expression in Human Macrophages.

Moderate Beer Intake Downregulates Inflammasome Pathway Gene Expression in Human Macrophages.
Publication type
Journal Article
Year of Publication
Biology (Basel)
Date published
2021 Nov 09

Inflammasomes are key components of the innate immunity system that trigger the inflammatory response. Inappropriate activity of the inflammasome system has been linked to onset and perpetuation of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques and cardiovascular disease. Low-to-moderate beer consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular event presentation, while high levels of alcohol intake are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although fermented beverages have been suggested to exert their beneficial effects through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, little is known regarding the capacity of beer to modulate innate immunity cell responses. To this aim, primed or activated THP-1 macrophages were conditioned with human serum obtained from a prospective two-arms longitudinal crossover study to investigate the effect of a moderate and regular daily intake of beer, either alcohol-free or traditional, in the regulation of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in healthy but overweight individuals. Conditioned macrophages with serum obtained after four-week intervention with alcohol-free beer significantly reduced the transcription of pro-inflammatory interleukins such as IL-1β and TNF. The serum of traditional beer consumers did not exhibit the same capacity as the serum of alcohol-free beer consumers to reduce gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins; however, serum from traditional beer consumers showed a regulatory effect at the protein level by significantly decreasing the intracellular protein levels of pro-IL-1β in primed macrophages and preventing cleaved-IL-1β protein release.