Total and beverage-specific alcohol intake and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: a case-control study.
BACKGROUND: Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a known carcinogen, but its association with aggressive prostate cancer (APC) is uncertain. Recent studies have shown a modest increase in risk of APC associated with heavy alcohol intake while association for beverage types remain inconsistent.
METHODS: Using a case-control design and self-administered questionnaire, we examined the association between APC (high grade and/or advanced stage) and frequency and quantity of alcohol intake 2 years prior to enrolment. Furthermore, we delineated the relationships for beverage-specific intakes of beer, red wine, white wine and spirits.
RESULTS: The study included 1282 APC cases and 951 controls. Beer intake frequency of ⩾5 days per week was associated with increased risk compared with no beer intake (odds ratio=1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.48) whereas wine was protective at all frequencies of consumption compared with those with no wine intake. For every 10 g per week ethanol intake from beer increase, the odds of advanced PC rose by 3% (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.05). No such increased risk was observed for red or white wine while a marginal dose-response relationship was found for spirits (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.07).
CONCLUSIONS: Heavy beer and possibly spirits consumption is associated with increased risk while no dose-response relationship was found for red or white wine. Wine drinkers at all frequencies have a decreased risk of APC compared with those who did not drink wine.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 18 April 2017; doi:10.1038/pcan.2017.12.