Moderate alcohol consumption and lipoprotein subfractions: a systematic review of intervention and observational studies.
CONTEXT: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improvement in cardiovascular risk markers, including lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the relationship between moderate alcohol intake, lipoprotein subfractions, and related mechanisms.
DATA SOURCES: Following PRISMA, all human and ex vivo studies with an alcohol intake up to 60 g/d were included from 8 databases.
DATA EXTRACTION: A total of 17 478 studies were screened, and data were extracted from 37 intervention and 77 observational studies.
RESULTS: Alcohol intake was positively associated with all HDL subfractions. A few studies found lower levels of small LDLs, increased average LDL particle size, and nonlinear relationships to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Cholesterol efflux capacity and paraoxonase activity were consistently increased. Several studies had unclear or high risk of bias, and heterogeneous laboratory methods restricted comparability between studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Up to 60 g/d alcohol can cause changes in lipoprotein subfractions and related mechanisms that could influence cardiovascular health.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. 98955.