The effect of alcohol on osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease hallmarked by the interaction of genetic, nutritional and environmental factors. We aimed to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on the osteoporosis by undertaking a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science until June 2018. We identified all pertinent observational studies that examined the risk of OSTEOPOROSIS with alcohol use including cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies. Relative risks (RR) for cohort studies and odds ratios (ORs) for case-control studies were pooled using the random effects model. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: From a pool of 3479 studies identified six met the study inclusion criteria (three case control, two cohorts and one cross-sectional study). Compared with abstainers of alcohol, persons consuming 0.5–1 drinks per day had 1.38 times the risk of developing osteoporosis (adjusted RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 0.90–2.12), persons consuming 1–2 drinks per day had 1.34 times the risk of developing OSTEOPOROSIS (adjusted RR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11–1.62), and persons consuming two drinks or more per day had 1.63 times the risk of developing osteoporosis (adjusted RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01–2.65). We found a positive association between alcohol consumption and osteoporosis in the case-control studies (adjusted OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.78–4.90). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and osteoporosis.